Footnote Format Mla Style Bibliography

 

Chicago/Turabian Basics: Footnotes

 

Why We Use Footnotes

The style of Chicago/Turabian we use requires footnotes rather than in-text or parenthetical citations. Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the first time the source is being used. Any additional usage, simply use the author’s last name, publication title, and date of publication.

Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. You should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

In the text:

Throughout the first half of the novel, Strether has grown increasingly open and at ease in Europe; this quotation demonstrates openness and ease.1

In the footnote:

1. Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity, 2009), 34-40.

When citing a source more than once, use a shortened version of the footnote.

2. James, The Ambassadors, 14.


Citing sources with more than one author

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their full names in the order they appear on the source. If there are more than three authors, list only the first author followed by “et al.” You should list all the authors in the bibliography.

John K. Smith, Tim Sampson, and Alex J. Hubbard, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.

John K. Smith, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.


Citing sources with other contributor information

You may want to include other contributor information in your footnotes such as editor, translator, or compiler. If there is more than one of any given contributor, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.

John Smith, Example Book, trans. Bill McCoy and Tim Thomas (New York: Random House, 2000), 15.

John Smith, Example Book, ed. Tim Thomas (New York: Random House, 1995), 19.

If the contributor is taking place of the author, use their full name instead of the author’s and provide their contribution.

John Smith, trans., Example Book (New York: Random House, 1992), 25.


Citing sources with no author

It may not be possible to find the author/contributor information; some sources may not even have an author or contributor- for instance, when you cite some websites. Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual.

Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65.


Citing a part of a work

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, or volumes. If page numbers cannot be referenced, simply exclude them. Below are different templates:

Multivolume work:

Webster’s Dictionary, vol. 4 (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995).

Part of a multivolume work:

John Smith, ed., “Anthology,” in Webster’s Dictionary, ed. John Smith, vol 2. of Webster’s Dictionaries (Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1995).

Chapter in a book:

Garrett P. Serviss, “A Trip of Terror,” in A Columbus of Space (New York: Appleton, 1911), 17-32.

Introduction, afterword, foreword, or preface:

Scott R Sanders, introduction to Tounchstone Anthology of Contemporary Creative Nonfiction: Work from 1970 to Present, ed. Lex Williford and Michael Martone (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007), x-xii.

Article in a periodical:

William G. Jacoby, “Public Attitudes Toward Public Spending,” American Journal of Political Science 38, no. 2 (May 1994): 336-61.


Citing group or corporate authors

In your footnotes, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author.

American Medical Association, Journal of the American Medical Association: 12-43.


Citing an entire source

When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore, simply exclude the page numbers from the footnote.

John K. Smith, Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010).


Citing indirect sources

When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. If using an unpublished address, cite only in the paper/writing. If using a published address, use a footnote with the following format.

Paula Abdul mentioned in her interview on Nightline…
Zouk Mosbeh, “Localization and the Training of Linguistic Mediators for the Third Millennium,” Paper presented at The Challenges of Translation & Interpretation in the Third Millennium, Lebanon, May 17, 2002.


Citing the Bible

The title of books in the Bible should be abbreviated. Chapter and verses should be separated by a colon. You should include the version you are referencing.

Prov. 3:5-10 AV.


Citing online sources

Generally, follow the same principals of footnotes to cite online sources. Refer to the author if possible and include the URL.

Henry James, The Ambassadors (Rockville: Serenity: 2009), http://books.google.com.

Bhakti Satalkar, “Water Aerobics,” http://www.buzzle.com, (July 15, 2010).


Citing online sources with no author

If there is no author, use either the article or website title to begin the citation. Be sure to use quotes for article titles and include the URL.

“Bad Strategy: At E3, Microsoft and Sony Put Nintendo on the Defense,” BNET, www.cbsnews.com/moneywatch, (June 14, 2010)

Footnotes contain the same information as the bibliographic citation, but with slight differences.[1]  Note that the authors are in normal order, not inverted.[2] The author is followed by a comma and the publication information is now in parentheses.[3]  In the footnote you will give the page number of the quote or information you have used.[4]

In Microsoft Word, select References / Insert Footnote to create automatically placed and numbered footnotes.[5]  Select the default values: they specify that footnotes will be at the bottom of the page and numbered 1, 2, 3 etc.  Footnotes are created by the automatic program in 10-pt. type. If you copy and paste them from a list, you must change them to 10-pt. type.

The first footnote contains the full citation. Subsequent footnotes from the same item can be shortened to the author or author and title.

   Use the same rules for footnotes for online sources. Use a shortened form for the second footnote.  Include the name of the database, the date you viewed it, and the URL.

These examples are for commonly found types of materials. If your material does not fit with any of these examples, look at the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. There are copies at the Reference Desk and in the circulating collection.  There are online guides to help you with citations at http://libraryweb.utep.edu/db/citing.cfm.



[1] Discovering the Music of Africa. DVD. Directed by Bernard Wilets. (Huntsville, Tex.: Educational Video Network, 2004).

[2] David M. Guion. The Trombone: Its History and Music, 1697-1811.  (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1988): 25.

[3] National Early Music Association Conference. “From Renaissance to Baroque: Change in Instruments and Instrumental Music in the Seventeenth Century.”  (Aldershot, England: Ashgate,2005) 65.

[4] Guion, The Trombone, 76.

[5] “From Renaissance to Baroque,” 92.

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