Research Papers On Knowledge Management

Analyzing, Assessing and Determining Critical Functions and Relevant Credit Institutions within the Banking Resolution Regulatory Frame – Proposal for a Practical Approach

15 February 2018

The 2014 framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms led by the Directive 2014/59/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council introduces the concept of critical functions and the requirement for resolution authorities to identify and ensure their continuance in case of resolution; however the guidelines on how to […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VIII, Issue no. 1

A Study on Online Shopping Sites from Perspective of Perceived Value and Perceived Customer Satisfaction

15 December 2017

Perceived customer value may be describe as comparing with of performance and quality perceptions perceived for offers of competing products and services and own products and services, devoted to own products and services of the customers in the way of enterprises. The concept of perceived value is an inner comparison and evaluation condition appeared as […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 6

Impact of Financial Literacy on Personal Savings: A Research on Usak University Staff

15 December 2017

The factors such as capital stock, human capital, technological progress, financial development, institutional development, development level of infrastructure and trade openness are one of the major determinants of long run economic growth. Financial literacy has potential to affect the economic growth by making contribution to the savings and development of financial sector. In this study, […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Volume VII, Issue no. 6

Analysis of the internationalization process in an emerging market company: The case of BACHOCO

15 October 2017

The agricultural sector in Mexico is a sub-study area. The objective of this work is to describe the internationalization process of Industrias BACHOCO (BACHOCO), a leading company in the Mexican poultry sector. In order to achieve this objective, a case study was carried out on the internationalization process that the company followed, using the classical […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 5

The Effects of Oil Price Fluctuations on Foreign Trade Performance: Evidence from Turkey as an Emerging National Economy

15 October 2017

Nowadays, while globalization has become a prominent phenomenon and gained great importance, foreign trade has started playing a critical role for economic success of countries with the extinction of closed economy concept and shrinking distances among countries as a result of the technological advancements and fascinating continuous growth of the national economies. Many academicians and […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 5

Effects of Management Accounting Practices and Performance Measurement on the Perception of Business Performance: Field Study on Organized Industrial Zone of Konya

15 August 2017

Management accounting that is an indispensible part of management function, which is defined as planning, organization, implementation and control of business activities, is one of the greatest helpers of business management in decision-making. For business managers, management accounting techniques has been one of the important tools in establishing strategic goals and achieving those goals. One […]

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Posted in Volume VII, Issue no. 4

Causality Analysis of the Impact of Monetary Policy on Stock Markets: The Case of Turkey

15 August 2017

In this paper, the effects of monetary policies on the Borsa Istanbul (BIST) stock market have been examined in Turkey for the period 2006-2016. The obtained findings point out some significant effect of the monetary policy on BIST stock market prices and returns in Turkey. In this context Johansen Cointegration and Granger Causality test methods […]

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Posted in Volume VII, Issue no. 4

Effects of Business Model and Strategic Growth Factors on Organization Value Creation

15 August 2017

This paper examines the effects of business models and strategic growth factors on organization value creation. This paper addresses the research question by using Nestle Nigeria Plc. as a case study with 180 sample size as respondents to test the hypotheses. This study uses regression analysis method to investigate business models and strategic growth factors […]

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Posted in Volume VII, Issue no. 4

Factors Affecting Contractors’ Performance in Construction Project Delivery in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

15 August 2017

Most of the construction projects delivered in Akure, Ondo State for public use depict evidence that they were not successfully executed. These effects result in time and cost overruns, poor project execution and outright abandonment. These could be attributed to lack of technical know-how on specific project types and corruption tendencies amongst others. This study […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Volume VII, Issue no. 4

The Relationship between Petroleum Prices and Stock Exchange Istanbul: Hidden Cointegration Analysis

15 August 2017

Petroleum is the life source of modern economies. As countries become urbanized and modernized, petroleum demand would increase dramatically. Predicting future demand for petroleum is quite difficult but it is closely related to industrial production. Therefore, the petroleum demand of countries exhibiting rapid economic growth would also increase rapidly, and the rapid increase in demand […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 4

Assessing Knowledge Management Initiatives: A Framework Based On Stakeholder Approach

15 August 2017

This paper discusses various methods and tools to assess knowledge management and makes an exploratory evaluation of these elements. Most of them show some weaknesses concerning, firstly the fact that different groups of interest must be taken into account, and secondly the fact that tacit knowledge that belongs to individuals is difficult to assess. Our […]

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Posted in Economics, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 4

Influence of Social Presence on Sense of Virtual Community

15 April 2017

Virtual Internet communities have emerged that feature cross-platform, interactive, diversified, and personalized functions, enabling members to share ideas, interests, information, feelings, knowledge, and experiences with other members in a lifelike environment. In this study, we investigated how a sense of virtual community is formed in the online environments where users communicate and build interpersonal relationships. […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 2

Binary Logistic Analysis: Empowerment of Rural Household Craft Industry in Bangli Regency, Bali, Indonesia

15 April 2017

The aim of this study was to analyze the variables that may affect the application of the technology to produce handicrafts. The method used to determine the sample unit of craft businesses of rural households that will be interviewed are acidental sampling. This study uses a quantitative analytical approach. Quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics and […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 2

Development of Accounting in Kosovo: A Historical Perspective and Future Implications

15 February 2017

Qualitative and reliable financial information is a key element in the decision making process, and the availability of such information is particularly important for the business management and public interest in general. The road towards ensuring qualitative and reliable financial information is challenging and requires the use of multiple mechanisms to put in function the […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 1

Analysis on the Impact of Public Debt on Economic Growth Case of Republic of Kosovo

15 February 2017

Since the half of the last century the importance of public debt as an instrument of economic policy, is increasing more and more. Public debt as a form of financing for meeting the needs of state, besides being present in developed industrial countries, it is used a lot in developing countries or countries in transition. […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 1

The impact of social media on consumer behavior – Case study Kosovo

15 February 2017

Most studies show that the Internet and social media usage is changing consumer behav-ior,a modern trend also witnessed in developing countries such as Kosovo. This paper will offer an overview on how the consumers use social media in the stages of decision making process and the psychographic variables that influence their behavior. A survey of […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Volume VII, Issue no. 1

Entry marketing strategy of SAAB car manufacturer into the Indian market

15 February 2017

As domestic markets have become saturated, multinational corporations (MNC) are turning their attention to international markets to increase their market share, revenues and their profits. MNCs activities have become increasingly global in scope, whereby going abroad is crucial if they are to succeed. This process is a challenge because the MNCs needs to overcome the […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VII, Issue no. 1

Human Resources in SAP

15 October 2016

Modern and advanced organizations in today’s world are influenced by various changes. One of these changes is impact of information technology applications and programs. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly popular and today’s big, medium and small companies have to deal with changes of the new era and modern technology. One important reason is achieving competitive […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 5

Buying a Real State Property Based on Two Possible Scenarios: Cash Payment and Payment by Installments. What’s the Best Option?

15 October 2016

The following document presents a mathematical evaluation model applying two possible scenarios for the supposed acquisition of a property through a personal credit, with the purpose of knowing which is more convenient for the buyer: making a cash payment with a discount for prompt payment or making the purchase deferred in equal payments while generating […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Volume VI, Issue no. 5

Determinants of Economic Value Added: An Empirical Study in the Companies of Aguascalientes State, México

15 October 2016

The organizational and individual characteristics of the owners of SME’s, small and medium size companies, have an influence generating value for them. In this research, a scale is set out in order to identify which strategies are able to generate value for organizations. Later, a comparison is made between Mexico and the OECD members, according […]

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Posted in Economics, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 5

The Review of Individual Income Tax- Self-Undertaking in Farming, Fishing, Animal Husbandry, Forestry and Mining: A Perspective of Tax Equity

15 August 2016

The principle of tax equity is the most important principle for taxation system design and revision. However, it has tax preference based on consideration of tax collection and social policy. According to Article 14, Category 6 of Individual Income Tax- Self-undertaking in Farming, Fishing, Animal Husbandry, Forestry and Mining, it regulates that the total income […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 4

Preferences of Private Clients to the Banking Products – Case Study ProCredit Bank

15 August 2016

The paper is aimed at researching customer preferences towards products and services, in particular researching preferences of private clients towards products and banking services. The research for preferences towards products and services is conducted based on data from the Central Bank reports on the banking sector, from ProCredit Bank reports that was taken as a […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 4

Financing Sources of Firms – A Special View of the Municipality of Peja

15 August 2016

The paper focuses on possibilities of business in providing financing resources during their business cycle. Businesses face a number of difficulties in case of providing financing resources especially for external financing source. With the purpose of identifying these difficulties, a survey was realized with businesses in the Municipality of Peja, respectively with owners or their […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 4

Current Transfers as the Main Source for Covering Trade Deficit –The Case of Kosovo

15 August 2016

The very high trade deficit is one of the main characteristics of the external sector of Kosovo’s economy, which is a similar characteristic that can be found in many developing countries and transition economies. This paper aims to examine the empirical data regarding the performance of the trade balance of the Republic of Kosovo for […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 4

Stress Testing of Credit Risk: Case Based on Loan Portfolio, Capital Adequacy and Non-Performing Loans in Kosovo

15 June 2016

Nowadays the financial stability of the banking sector is a very controversial topic especially the assessment of the right quantity of capital that banks must set aside to be protect against various types of risks with which has to do the banking sector, it presents a big challenge. One of techniques that help to bring […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 3

Technological Innovation in Developing Countries: A Descriptive Analysis

15 June 2016

Although most studies are interested with innovation in developed countries, we think that innovation is also vital for developing ones. The objective of this study is to describe it in developing countries. To quantify innovations, we use two types of indicators. The first type is associated with the inputs (R&D), the second is associated with […]

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Posted in Economics, Journal Issues, Volume VI, Issue no. 3

Government, Globalization and Governance Impacts on Business Start-ups: Evidence from a Classified Panel Data Analysis

15 April 2016

Using an unbalanced panel data set covering 98 countries and the period 2004-2012, this paper aims to ascertain the extent to which the governmental, globalization and governance factors affect the formal business start-ups. We represent government by formal constraints to starting a new business while KOF indices that measure the economic, social and political dimensions […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

Differential Recessionary Impacts on U.S. Research Relative to Comprehensive University Efficiencies and Productivities: 2004-2014 Panel Data Estimates

15 April 2016

Using data envelopment analysis and Malmquist index decompositions this paper focuses on the impacts of the Great Recession on the efficiency and productivity changes of U.S. publicly funded prestigious research universities in comparison to their lower level comprehensive university counterparts. Do elite research relative to comprehensive universities have more political clout and resources to better […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

A Review of Research Methods in Strategic Management; What Have Been Done, and What is Still Missing

15 April 2016

Research methods designed to study strategic management, are as varied as the theories of strategy that have been developed over time. From the purely quantitative methods with mathematical models such as structural equations or multiple regression models, even the purely qualitative methods such as ethnography, or direct observation. However, despite the differences, all these methods […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

Analysis of Some Theoretical Aspects that Define Inclusion and Financial Education

15 April 2016

In this essay, a reflection is made regarding the subject of financial education nowadays seen from a global to local perspective. Also, it identifies the variables that have been studied and that measure the level of financial education in different populations such as: teachers, students, administrative personnel and homes, among others, in different world contexts. […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

Model of Long-Term Savings with Several Interest Rates and Time

15 April 2016

The aim of this paper is to present a model of long-term savings from financial calculations, using investment instruments that offer various banking institutions with the aim of showcasing the benefits of yields and thus achieve the planned purposes with money invested, and as an option to promote savings for students.

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

The Main Institutional and Cultural Variables which Are Considered in the Involvement of Internationalization of Multinational Firms

15 April 2016

This paper is aimed to analyze some of the institutional and cultural implications on internationalization analysis of multinational firms. The analysis begins questioning what the main institutional and cultural variables are considered in the involvement of internationalization of multinational firms. To answer this question, firstly it is reviewed the literature on internationalization of multinational firms […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI / 2016, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

An Analysis of Resources, Capacities, and Institutions of the Aviation Industry in Mexico: Hydra Technologies Case

15 April 2016

This paper aboard the analysis of the aviation industry, indicating that it has high prospects for growth, specifically analyses the global situation to mention key aspects of the case of Mexico, analyzing the case of Hydra Technologies where elements found in their success are resources and capabilities such as innovation, human resources; institutions that also […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI, Issue no. 2

The Role of Advertising in Motivating Consumer Brand Preference for Banking Services in Eco bank Nigeria Ltd

15 February 2016

Concerned for the stiff competition in the banking industry, this study set out to determine the role of advertising in motivating consumers’ preference for the Eco bank brand, using the Hotel Presidential branch of the bank in Port Harcourt as a test case. The survey research used the availability sampling technique to draw a sample […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI / 2016, Volume VI, Issue no. 1

Value Accounting and Corporate Performance. A Study of Paint Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria

15 February 2016

Quality management systems require companies to operate a formal design review process. This is to ensure that the quality of a product is best assured. The quality accreditation system is monitored and audited by external agencies. As such, companies that fail to comply with quality assurance procedures will not qualify for quality award and may […]

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Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI / 2016, Volume VI, Issue no. 1

In this paper after a review on the concept and literature of knowledge management, the conceptual model of a successful knowledge management system that is currently being applied in a research and development organization is presented and discussed. The main contribution of the paper is presenting the model in its useful and practical status without becoming involved in theoretical discussions that have different shapes but similar meanings.

This articel was also published in Open Journal of Knowledge Management, Issue V/2012.


1 Background / Problem

1.1 What have been the challenges for knowledge management (KM)?

Sustainable competitive advantage is dependent on building and exploiting core competencies (Prahalad and Hammel, 1990). So resources which are distinctive and difficult to transfer are required (Grant, 1991). In recent years, knowledge is being considered as a critical organizational resource (Carneiro, 2000; Alavi and Leidner, 2001; Drucker, 1993) and is known as the foundation for stable development (Allameh et al., 2011) especially in hyper competitive environments (Alavi, 1999; Davenportand Prusak, 1998; Zack, 1999) or in environments experiencing radical discontinuous changes (Malhotra, 2000).

Software project managers for example often interact with each other to address problems rather than relying on a formal knowledge repository (Newell, 2004) or managers often prefer telephone calls, meetings, and other personal interactions to obtain information that is timely and often undocumented (Mintzberg, 1989). Although social interaction with colleagues can be an effective way to share and reuse knowledge, there are limitations of this method as well like finding the appropriate person (in spite of any geographical or temporal boundaries) (Adler and Kwon, 2002), effective articulation of knowledge holder mind especially for beginners that need more time (Markus, 2001) and most importantly is loosing knowledge when the expert leaves (Hansen et al., 1999, March and Smith, 1995).

Schultze and Stabell (2004) noted that defining KM is challenging because a complete and agreed-upon definition of knowledge remains elusive. The definition of knowledge is one that has attracted a significant amount of conjecture (Davenport and Prusak, 1997). While information is often considered as interpreted data of descriptions, knowledge is considered as action oriented information that makes possible the transition from information into instructions. Many organizations are drowning in information overload and yet starving for knowledge (Kanter, 1999). Simply knowledge has been defined as an understanding awareness, or familiarity acquired through study, investigation, observation and experience over time (Borg et al., 1993) to improve the quality and success ratio of the actions (Alavi and Leidner, 1999a and 1999b). KM is becoming a research priority by the academic community (Salmador and Bueno, 2007) and companies are allocating a greater share of spending for its implementation (Beijerse, 1999; Call, 2005). It is an amalgamation of concepts borrowed from artificial intelligence, software engineering, business process re-engineering , human resources management, organizational behavior (Beckman, 1999), organizational learning (Argyris and Schon, 1978; Huber, 1991; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995) and business reference models (Scheer, 1994).

1.2 Which problem should be solved?

Often, intellectual capital research focused on definitions and classification (Hsu, 2006) so it should not surprise us to see similar models that are named differently. For example, Van Buren (1999) split structural capital into innovation capital and process capital while Bontis (1996, 2001, 2002a, 2002b) and Pike et al.(2002) consider process capital and organizational capital as components of structural capital. Although this wide range of works has many positive points but can hinder the field from more efficient development (Bontis, 2001). On the other hand what is now the most necessary for the literature is kind of combinatorial works of theory and application. In this paper the conceptual model of a KM system (KMS) in an Iranian research and development (R&D) aerospace organization is going to be demonstrated while its relation with the theory of the field will be discussed.

2 Activity and Evaluation –Implementation of a KMS

A KMS is distinct from transaction processing systems (TPS), decision support systems (DSS) or executive information systems (EIS) (Alavi, 1999) because of its main mission is to transform experiences into explicit knowledge within the organization. Experience is important and critical part of a KMS (Nonaka, 1994) because when individuals receive new information, the information is processed in light of one’s past experience to develop and create new knowledge (Prahalad and Hammel, 1990); in better words it connects the past to the present (Davenport and Prusak, 2000). The collective body of knowledge offered by employees of the organizations has emerged as a key point of differentiation, providing a foundation upon which the quality of products and services can be improved (Balthazard and Cooke, 2004; Jashapara, 2004; Andrade et al., 2003).

According to the above mentioned importance of experience and the fact that Knowledge is reusable (Basili and Rombach, 1991); a well-built KM model should have a mechanism for dealing with this critical element. Experience may be deeply personal or can be communicated through storytelling (Denning, 2000), mentoring (Swap et al., 2001), and documentation (Roth and Kleiner, 1998). To document experience, for example business schools use case studies or some knowledge repositories provide knowledge in the form of bullet points and so on. Mathiassen et al., (2003) offer four methods to reuse experience: 1- Applying it from a prior project to solve a current problem; 2- Selecting project members specifically on their prior experiences and projects to jointly address a new problem; 3- Designing procedures and methods to address a specific problem (that can be called instructions) and 4- Using documents, processes, models, methods, or other types of explicit knowledge gained from previous projects within the organization.

After a comprehensive literature review and case studies (the above discussed points), a KMS has been designed and applied in our organization with satisfactory results. In fact it is not claimed that the following introduced model is the most novel and newest or the most appropriate system for benefiting from the concept of KM; we just want to introduce the key for the lock of implementing KM as a culture not compulsion in our organization. The system is composed of four modules as follows.

2.1 Knowledge map

The first module relates to the concept of knowledge map. In the organization after each stage the knowledge map is updated. It is a simple initiative to show which knowledge, technical and executive capabilities, unique laboratory abilities and which highly proficient software and hardware are available; where and when.

The stage can be specified on the basis of time or event. A time-based stage means for example the knowledge map being updated quarterly or biannually and an event-based stage means for example recruiting new experts, technologies, business relations or the high qualified and very special courses that the organization experts pass.

Knowledge map must be prepared for present and future. The applicability of present knowledge map is obvious, for example now we encounter a problem and want to solve it; so naturally we refer to the knowledge map for the best portfolio of experts. But its applicability in future helps us in our planning. In better words a planer can do better in planning for the next three years if s/he has a vision about the capabilities of that period.

2.2 Project team files

Teams documentation: Most of the projects in an R&D organization are done by teams. So what is most important is identifying experienced teams in the organization. It actually arises from the systemic approach to the problems; i.e. for example expert A may have some individual capabilities and so may B, but the AB team may present much more capabilities or in the other way around the AB team may be incapable of anything. Senge (1990) discussed this very well on the basis of complex balancing processes between the components. As an another example assume that team 1 consists of experts A, B and C and team 2 consists of experts A, B and D, in this condition we can not say for sure that these two teams are 66% the same. In fact because of their different balancing processes (Senge, 1990) they may have completely different outcomes. So it seems wise to document as much as possible about a team that has already done a project.

To be short, project teams are very important elements and documentation of their abilities more. It is to be noted that if there is any guest expert in the team for example a software expert, a control project expert or even a manager, s/he is going to be documented here.

List of outsourced projects: Here again we have some files but not about our personnel and teams but some external cooperators.

2.3 Documentation of experiences

Documenting technical, scientific and executive experiences of a project with copy right is a valuable source of intellectual capital that can be applied and reused in other situations. Meanwhile, when this experience applies to different situations, it may be altered and/or updated (Hsu, 2006).

As was mentioned previously, for doing the documentation there is no specific format but it is highly believed that a person has the opportunity to learn vicariously through the experiences of others when those experiences are articulated through an oral or written narrative. By expressing experiences via narratives, less experienced managers can understand not only how to solve a problem, but also why the solution works.

Discovering new horizons: The projects results are documented electronically and continuously according to our data base system. What is very important in the system is the copy right for published knowledge and in fact they are considered as precious properties for their owners. The people that have submitted more and better works are likely to be referenced more that will help them for better promotions. Each experience before being documented is referred by three trusty referees. This documentation system is welcomed surprisingly by the employees and beside scientific contributions; there are plenty of tacit executive and managerial points, which are recorded explicitly in the system.

Discovering new problems: This part of the system focuses on the problems that hinder the project in any way and the project team is incapable of solving them. The problems can be scientific, executive, technical, managerial or even politic. All the permitted people according to the information protection policies of the organization can see them. The people independent of their position and field of expertise can electronically propose their solutions for the problem. Whenever the problem is solved, it will be added as knowledge to the system with the asker and responder names; while both of them will benefit from it until their created knowledge is referred by others.

This module also covers the recruiting practices of the projects teams. The procedure is that, first the job vacancies are announced in the organization and if not become occupied domestically the need for experts is announced out of the organization.

2.4 Publications, Theses and Patents

Publications: The outputs of any project are considerably rewarded if they appear in best selling books or very credible international journals. More publications, more scores for the project team. That is in this part of the KMS; knowledge is saved in paper and book formats and is accessible to everyone.

Theses: One pillar of the KMS is post graduate theses both M.Sc. and Ph.D. (there is also a plan to admit postdoctoral fellows in 2014, September). This module of the KMS is entitled University Connections and has two main parts. In one part, there are some completed or in process postgraduate theses while in the other, there are some applications or general proposals for such theses that are always sent to credible Iranian universities and some contracted universities around the world.

The theses are sponsored by the budget of the project leader. In fact s/he on one hand benefits from the good results in terms of future promotions and on the other hand undertakes all the responsibilities of a fruitful investment of the organization.

Patents: The recorded patents are part of the KMS with necessary information for references. The patent owner for always has a considerable share in the patent-based benefits of the organization. In better words patents that are not referred or applied for value creation, neither benefits the organization nor the associated person.

As can be seen in the above model all of the important elements of KM according to the literature including creating, capturing, sharing, distributing, leveraging and archiving knowledge into absolute value for the organization are covered. In this regard the information technology has contributed the most.

3 Conclusion

Although KM literature is full of excellent works and many researchers have developed KM models to maximize satisfaction of the academicians and practitioners, still this field suggests the need for more practical and comprehensive models. Applying the developed KM models is difficult because of the fact that knowledge is intangible and it involves delicate managerial works. On the basis of this point in this paper the conceptual model of a successful and currently applied KMS is presented and discussed. It would be good to try application of the discussed model in a typical organization and present the learned points and tips to all.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the editor-in-chief (Mr. Steffen Doberstein) for his extremely helpful comments on this paper and finally the two anonymous referees for their precious contributions.

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