Lifestyle is a word that shows how we endure our life, how we act in this life, how we interact with others and it also means the way we think about every part in our lives. We know that our lifestyle changes every time. Yesterday we still used abacus to do our math homework, but now we just use our calculator or computer to account the numbers. Yesterday we used bicycle to go to other places, and now we use motorcycle and car to reach the places. Our lifestyle is changing from the primitive one in long time ago to a modern lifestyle in this globalization era. But, do you know the last primitive lifestyle gave us some advantages which cannot be given by modern lifestyle. Primitive lifestyle is better than our modern because some aspects which can give us a better life.
When we think about primitive ethnics like Dayak in Kalimantan, Kubu in Sumatera, and Asmat in Papua, we directly think they are so weird and left behind. They do not want to accept technology which comes to human’s life, they still live in jungle, in short they do not want to mingle with others in this globalization system. On the other hand, when globalization system comes to our life, people change their lifestyle to a modern one which imitated from big countries like America, United Kingdom, China, Japan, and others. They use so much technology to do everything in their lives. They use telephone to communicate, use motor vehicles to transport, and they also use technology to do their house works like washing clothes, cooking food, and cleaning the rooms. Based on this detail, we can decide that a modern lifestyle uses some technology, instead the primitive lifestyle does not want to use even they do not want to know about anything in technology.
The first reason why primitive lifestyle becomes better than the modern one is about their lives are healthier than our lives, we all know that the food which we consumed are taken from our nature, meat from animals and vegetable from plants. Although the modern or primitive people eat the same source of food, but each other gets the different nutrition. In modern era, the food serves with interesting look, and processed with some essence added to the materials. The past food or usually we call it junk food like pizza, hotdog, and soon are very common in our life. And the strange part is we still eat it although we know that foods are not healthy. Another example, our vegetables and fruits are packed with modern ways, and off course it uses preservative essences that make it looks more interesting. But in primitive lifestyle, they just picked their vegetables and fruits from their own garden and then they cook them with simple ways like frying, boiling, or roasting. It will help them to get full nutrition from that food without adding or subtracting other essence like preservative, food coloring, and other thing to make their food more delicious or get more interesting look. And the other things that make primitive people’s live become healthier is drink. Modern people love to drink some packed product of drink like soft drink, caprice coffee, caprice tea, and other instant drink which are tasted delicious. But, primitive people like to consume fresh water, natural coffee, and some herbal drink that are made by themselves. And with that healthy and natural drinks or food make people’s live better. Comparing our modern food with primitive one, In my opinion we would better consume more natural drink and food than junk food for our health. So, in this side we can see that primitive people is healthier than us. And if we want to be healthier, just try to consume more natural food.
As we know, primitive people donot accept the technology that come to our lives. They don’t want to use computer, television,even motorcycle. Because they do not use motorcycle or car, they have to ride the bicycle or they have to go on foot to move and reach other place. In other side, we all the modern people in this globalization era want to have at least one of motorvehicle. We can see people around us, one home has one or more vehicles, and we depend on motorcycles and cars to move from one place to another place. Consequently, when we necessary have to walk down to reach other place without vehicle, we will feel very tired. It happend because we don’t have any desire to walk and we donot feel usual with walking down on the road, we just want to ride motorcycle or drive car. It is different from primitive people, they donot want to use motorcycle or car, so that they have to walk everyday to visit and reach other place. It will help them get healthier because they are doing exercise every day. Primitive people change the sport like basket ball, jogging, and soccer to a simple activity. They walk around to transport and they do it everyday. So, by unknowing technology like vehicle help primitive people to live healthier than us in this modern era with so much technology.
We all know that every vehicle especially motorvehcle like car, motorcycle, and other use fuel which is from fosil, and when we turn on and use the vehicle, it will produce some noise and smoke. Vehicle’s smoke is one of the aspect that cause air polution. The air which has been poluted by smoke will cause some bad impacts to our body and our environtment. It causes some illnesses especially in respiration system, and air polution also causes global warming. Another source of polution is an-organic garbage. Motorcycles, cars, computers, washing machines, refrigirators, handphones, televisions, and so many electronic devices will become an-organic garbage. We see that every time the form and model of technology products and electro devices always change. Yesterday we use a big computer, now we use a small laptop and notebook. Yesterday we use motorcycle, now we use car. Because of human’s nature that we will never feel satisfied, we always want to change our old stuffs to a new one, we want to change our old computer to a new laptop, and then the computer will become garbage which will be thrown away. Imagine if fourty percent of people in this world do the samething, how many computer garbage will be collected? This garbage will causes land polution because an-organic garbage can’t be coated. Primitive people don’t use motorvehicles so that they will not get illness and,free from polution, and get healthier. Other advantage, because they don’t use technology they don’t need to throw the electro devices garbage away, and it will chase the polution. Primitive people’s lifestyle become healthier and better than modern people’s lifestyle because they dont know about technology.
Globalization means every part in life has become worldwide. The example of gllbalization are economic globalization, cultural globalization, lifestyle globalization, and so many aspects of life that has been globalize. Everything in our life has been influenced by other countries because of this globalization era. We are free to get information about other country’s culture, we can see American people’s lifestyle, we can eat Japanesse people’s food, and we can imitate French people’s fashion because of globalization. But, the globalization system doesn’t influence primitive etnic’s live. They don’t use technology so that they can not see what happend in Malaysia, what happend about Egipt’s political case, even may be they don’t know about Gayus case. Althought there is no technology in their live and it will let them left behind others, they feel comfortable with that. It happend because they get advantages from unknowing anything about globalization.
Technology and globalization make our life become easier, one of the advantages which brings by technology is we can get more information and news from every part of country in this world. Development of technology in information and communication parts produce some mass media like television, telephone, internet, radio, and others gives us news and information everytime and everywhere. But, do you know news and information that gives by technology sometimes tell us to leave and reduce the use of technology itself. For example, there are so many news that tell us to consume more natural fruits and less preserved fruits, do more exercise like bicycling and jogging than use vehicles, and the other one is keep continuing our own culture. Culture is one of some aspects which can be ruined by technology and globalization. As we know our lovely country Indonesia has so many different ethnics and culture. We can find many kind of regional languages, traditional clothes, traditional songs, traditional dances, traditional houses and some traditional ceremony and also religion from Sabang to Merauke. As Indonesians we all proud of these differences and we really understood the word ‘Bhineka Tunggal Ika’. But, since globalization and technology come to Indonesia, people change their perception. They are starting to leave their own culture and try to imitate other country’s culture like America, Japan, China, Korea, and French. Basically the changing of people perception started from information and news that serve by technology. We can see American people’s clothes, culture, and lifestyle from internet and television, and then people in Indonesia start to imitate it and make it become a trend center, finally people leave their own culture. For Muslim people, we know that the American style is not match with our religion and culture, but some teenagers have been influenced by this common style. They love to wear jeans and T-shirt to go to mosque when they actually should use Baju kurung or baju koko. It is very vital when Indonesian people give more love to foreign culture then our own culture. E
Even thought almost of Indonesian people start to leave their pattern culture, do not forget about Indonesian primitive ethnics people. As we know, primitive people do not use any kind of technology, so they do not know about America, Japan, and even Jakarta and other Indonesia’s big country. Because of that case, they are not influenced by globalization. And they still continue their own culture without some interference. We have to thank primitive peoples because they still continuing their culture which is one of Indonesian culture too, and hopefully our country do not loose these cultures and still have the characteristics of Indonesia as cultural country. Primitive people still wearing their traditional clothes, doing traditional ceremony, and produce some handcrafts and art productions. I think primitive people can defend their culture as long as they do not know and influence by technology and globalization. We are as modern people also have to remain our own culture like primitive people do, we can remain it with carefully choosing the information and news from other country which have influence to our live, and do not imitate the culture which not appropriate with our pattern culture. I hope our culture can be preserved and Indonesia does not lose its own characteristic.
Another aspect that can make primitive people life become better than our modern lifestyle is about interaction and communication. We know that as human being we cannot live alone in this world. We need other person to fulfill our needs like farmer to farm our foods, we need friends to share our opinions and experiences, we need entertainer to cheer our life, and absolutely we need parents to give us life and teach us how to undergo our own life. Because we need other person to contribute in our live, we need to master the key of relationship which are interaction and communication.
Interaction and communication are the important part of our life. Without interaction and communication, we cannot ask someone to help us, we cannot buy something to our daily needs, and we cannot learn about everything because learning needs communication. In this modern era, globalization system has been running in every part of the globe, so that we also need to interact not only with our neighbors or local people but also with other citizens in other country. Because of the need of communication, people start to create some invention in communication technology. Nowadays, we have known some technology tools in communication like television, internet, social network, facebook, e-mail, and other common things. As modern people in globalization era we need these tools to interact and communicate with other people especially in distance area, but we do not need this tool to communicate with our neighbors and our friends, what happened now? Everyone especially teenagers use these tools to communicate with other although they can do the direct interaction. On the other side, primitive people do not use these kinds of tools to interact and communicate because their populations are isolated from other. They do not need to interact with foreigner people from other country because they do not put themselves at interface of globalization, they just talking and communicating with their neighbors so that they do not use telephone or internet to communicate with others, and I think without technology primitive people get some advantages for their live.
Primitive people do not use technology to communicate, so that they have to do communication and interaction with the basic way which is face to face one. Face to face, it means that people meet each other to communicate and talk directly to the person. And we know that face to face interaction is the best way to communicate because we can easily understand what people want to say through their face. But, I think in this modern lifestyle people rarely communicate with direct way, we just use technology like telephone, cell phone, e-mail, facebook, and other media to interact with others. May be need these media but we can limit the using of technology, just use it when we really need it. For example facebook, which is one of common communication media that used by people to interact with others. We all know that facebook has some negative effect which can ruin our live. Nowadays almost everybody has one of facebook account and they use it every time, they chat with other people trough facebook every day, they share their experiences and opinions trough facebook, even they still use facebook account when they are working. It happened because of some reasons like they use it for working, they use it for communicate with friends, or they use it just for fun. But these online activity can cause some impact to their live like when they work in front of computer every day it can causes some disturbance on their vision because the radiation, other impact is the feeling of dependence to facebook because they want to share and tell their opinion and experience every time, the last impact is they do not want to interact directly face to face with other people because they just use media to communicate. When technology has been developing, people start to refuse and reduce direct communication in their life, they just want to use technology to interact with other because they think it is simple and cool, but when it becomes the behavior it will causes trouble when they forced to do face to face communication. For example a man who use technology to interact in his daily live has forced to give a presentation at a meeting, presentation is one kind of direct interaction, when the presenter do not feel familiar with face to face communication, he will get nervous and loose his concentration when giving the presentation. But, if we usually use direct communication every day, we will not nervous to give the presentation. I believe that we all as modern people with modern lifestyle have to try to interact with face to face communication like primitive people do, because direct communication is the best way to establish a good relationship with others.
Talking about interaction and communication,when we start to communicate with others it means that we start to cooperate and work with others too. Then, when we cooperate we need some attitudes to support our interaction. The attitudes are respectable, responsible, and decency. If we do not have those attitudes, we cannot cooperate with other because they will think we are selfish, arrogant, and they will think twice to accept our request. We will find these attitudes when we communicate face to face with other people.
To establish the interaction and relationship with other people we have to respect other people especially with people who older than us. Respectable means that we have to honor and estimate other people opinion. For example when we do something wrong, our parents will know about that and they will give us some advices. We have to show our respect to our parents when they give the advices and opinions, we have to listen well and try to accept their advice. But, if we do not listen and do not care about what they have said, it means we do not respect our parents consequently parents will get angry with us, because our parents angry, we will feel annoyed inside, it will cause some troubles like fight between parents and children. The same thing will happened if we also do not respect other people like friends, teacher, neighbors, and other citizens who give us advices, opinions, or just tell their experiences. If we do not listen and respond what they said, it will create a fight and opponent. At the end we just cannot cooperate with other peoples. And that’s all what primitive people do, they give their respect to other people when they talk. And respectable is a nature of direct interaction which is they done every day, and it will be the part of their culture. If we compare primitive and modern people’s respect, we have to say that we as modern people give less honor to other than primitive people. I think it happened because we rarely use direct communication. For example we use telephone to communicate with our parents, when they give us advices throught the telephone, we do not have to stay and listen for them. We can just put the telephone on the table and do other activity because our parent can not see what we do ehen they talking. So, we have to start growing our respectability to succed our interaction and cooperation with others.
When we communicate and interact with other people, it will create mutual relationship which give us some responsbility to take. For example we ask our friend to borrow a book, if they permit us, it means they give a responsibility to take care of the book, and we have to do that. if we do not have any responsible attitude, we do not want to take care of the book, then it will come with problem like we lose the book, or we broke the book. If it happened, the relationship between us and our friend will be ruined. Respectable, responsible, and decency are the part of direct interaction. We should try to remain the direct communication like what primitive people do to be a person with some attitude that can bring us to be a better person with a better life. And I think we would better reducing the use of technology to fix some problems that cause by technology itself.
At the last, we can see the differences between primitive and modern lifestyle. For some aspects in our live like healthy, communication, interaction, exercising, and cultural, I think primitive people do it better than us. Although we as modern people has put our self at the interface of globalization, it will not guarantee us to have a better live in the future, but technology and globalization make our life easier than before. I believe that nothing is perfect, primitive people may be can be better than us in cultural and interaction, but modern people also get more advantages than primitive people in education and technology. So, the best way to live this life is balancing some aspect in our life. We cannot imitate all of primitive lifestyle in this global era, but we also can not follow all of modern lifestyle. If we can balance our life, we can be a better person, we can make a better life, and then we can create a better future.
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Library Philosophy and Practice 2011
Globalization of Cultural Heritage: Issues, Impacts, and Inevitable Challenges for Nigeria
Mercy U. Nwegbu
Cyril C. Eze
Brendan E. Asogwa
Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects and behaviour. It includes the ideas, value, customs and artefacts of a group of people (Schaefer, 2002). Culture is a pattern of human activities and the symbols that give these activities significance. It is what people eat, how they dress, beliefs they hold and activities they engage in. It is the totality of the way of life evolved by a people in their attempts to meet the challenges of living in their environment, which gives order and meaning to their social, political, economic, aesthetic and religious norms and modes of organisation thus distinguishing people from their neighbours. In Federal Republic of Nigeria (1988), culture comprises material, institutional, philosophical and creative aspects.
The process of expanding culture has been under way for many centuries, but technologies have increased the speed and have also broadened the distribution of cultural elements beyond communities and nations’ territorial frontiers.
However, culture can be transmitted or acquired through information or symbol. Cultural identity is those attributes, behavioural patterns, lifestyles, social structures and norms that distinguish a people from other peoples (Omekwu, 2003). These are passed on laterally or inherited from one generation to another (cultural heritage), or horizontally passed on from one society to another through such agent as globalization. Henslin (2007) sees globalization as “the increased interconnectedness and under dependence of different societies around the world”. He also sees it as the breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communications, trade and travel.
Today the paradigm is shifting with the new opportunities and challenges created by new technologies. The message of this paper is therefore to examine;
- The emerging issues in the globalization of Nigerian cultural heritage.
- The impacts of technologies on the globalization of Nigeria cultural heritage.
- The role of libraries in the documentation, presentation and globalization of cultural heritage
- And the challenges and suggestions on how these effects may be overcome.
Now, what are the: Issues, Impacts, and Emerging challenges?
Colonial Legacy: One of the greatest issues is that Nigeria is a heterogeneous society. Before colonialism, the territory known as Nigeria today was inhabited by different peoples, empires, tribes and kingdoms. These peoples have different cultures, traditions and religion. The colonialists did not consider these divergent issues, but went ahead and welded them together as one country. Until 1977, when the only cultural show was performed in Nigeria (FESTAC) there had never been attempts to nationalize Nigerian cultural heritage. So when we talk or plan for globalization of the heritage it is pertinent to start at home/domestic level before internationalization (i.e. cultural nationalization before cultural globalization).
Cultural Diversity: Nigeria is a society with abundant rich cultural heritage that are scattered within the diverse ethnic nationalities. These cultural heritages include language, marriage rites, burial rites, birth rites, dressing, greeting, music, folklore, religion, and other tangible cultural monuments, natural sites and cultural landscapes. Some of these cultures have died due to western cultural influence and therefore needed to be revitalized and uploaded in the net if those who know how they are performed are still alive.
Information Technologies: The advent of ICT has forced libraries and librarians to operate with such concepts and phrases like information society, digitization, computer or information explosion, globalization, cyberspace and information superhighway. These technologies have forced the developed world to operate in a context of change which automatically affects the ways our cultural heritage are documented, preserved and practiced. It has brought the culture, folklore and heritage of western countries into our doorsteps, reading tables, desktop or laptop with just a press of the computer keyboard or a click of mouse. Where are Nigerian cultural heritage in the world cultural arena?
Cultural Policy: Efforts to globalize Nigerian cultural heritage have not been fully discussed, evaluated or strategized by the Nigerian government. There is serious lack of co-ordination of Nigerian cultural heritage between the Federal government and the Ministry of culture. Many Nigerians are not aware of the Nigerian culture due to the fact that cultural knowledge and practices are not included in Nigerian education curricula.
Environment of Cultural Globalization: How adequate are the libraries and information science in Nigeria prepared for the globalization of Nigerian cultural heritage? In an electronic environment, how many libraries in Nigeria have enough resources in terms of technologies and manpower for the globalization of Nigerian culture – steady power supply, computer literate society and cultural websites?
These are some of the contending issues that form the analytical framework for this paper. Other issues or questions are;
- Can globalization of Nigerian cultural heritage serve as a unifying factor or would it widen further the ethnic and cultural diversities?
- What would happen if Nigerian cultural heritage is not globalized?
- Is increased reliance on ICT a threat or an opportunity for the globalization of Nigerian cultural heritage?
- What specific roles should Nigerian government play towards the globalization of Nigeria cultural heritage?
- What are the challenges for IT and librarians in the globalization of Nigerian culture? Is safeguarding or preservation of Nigeria cultural heritage necessary if such heritage cannot be accessible to the outside world?
- What are the impacts of globalization of cultural heritage on Nigeria, religion, family, culture socialization (moonlight play give way to video game, cyberfraud, etc)
The positive impacts include (a) integration of Nigeria culture (b) speedy access to Nigeria culture in the internet, (c) digitization and preservation of cultural artefacts and (d) global access to the cultural heritage.
Integration of Nigerian Culture: The impact here is that globalization would integrate Nigeria culture and allow each cultural community to view the other’s culture in the internet. As a sport (football) which is a western culture unites Nigeria more than any other activities at the international arena, so would cultural globalization to Nigeria’s cultural diversity. With the name “Nigeria Cultural Heritage” on the internet, so the world is viewing Nigeria as a more united cultural nation. A proponent of this view Lechner (2002) outlined thus (1) that interaction across boundaries leads to the mixing of cultures in particular places and practices (i.e. pluralisation). (2) That cultural flows occur differently in different spheres and many originate in many places (i.e. differentiation), and (3) that integration and spread of ideas and images provoke reaction and resistance/competition (i.e. contestation).
Speedy Access: Once globalized, Nigerian cultures can be accessed online. Cultural access through the internet can be localized. By localization we mean a process by which foreign cultures viewed in the satellite TV system or the internet can be practised in Nigerian environment or and vice versa. This information can be accessed online simultaneously without distorting the contents.
Digitization: Digital scanners and cameras can be used to capture digital images (of cultural artefacts) for importation into computer systems. Conway (2000) highlighted some of the benefits of digitization to include: (a) digital images offer unique advantages because information and contents may be delivered directly to end users; (b) the data can be easily formatted, edited, and printed; (c) the digital collections are accessible to a large number of users simultaneously.
Globalization of cultural heritage has some negative impacts in some areas. Akande (2002) seems to understand more of this negative impact when he said that western adventures made efforts to undermine the cultural heritage of various peoples around the world through colonization, imperialism and now globalization. He said that cultural imperialism left the colonized in a state of cultural disorientation which is vulnerable to cultural invasion.
Commercialization of Culture: The most important far reaching effect of cultural globalization is the commercialization of culture. Production distribution and consumption of cultural goods and services have become commodities along with the essentials of life. Music, food, clothes, fashion, art, sports images, etc are now sold in the market, imported and exported.
Commercialization of culture has a disturbing impact on the people of Nigeria. For example, what was once an element of Nigeria’s cultural way of life has become a product, rather than something unique which they have made to suit their specific needs and circumstances. Nigerian markets are increasingly bombarded with new images, new music, new clothes and new values. The impact is that the familiar and the old artefacts are being discarded. The fact is that these will be lost simply because they are not valued by global markets. This undermining of the peoples existing values and cultures has a corrosive impact on the sense of who we are, what we want and what we respect. “The cumulative effect” in Akande’s (2000) words “is a crisis of cultural confidence, combined with economic uncertainty and crime which global integration often brings”.
Religion: In the area of religion, the impact of globalization is not left out. For example, Hock-Tong (2001) observes that Islamic fundamentalism has in many respects served as a bulwark against modernity, that Muslims generally see the secular influence of western science and technology as inimical to traditional Islamic values. This was the reason most non-Muslim researchers tend to attribute the underdevelopment and under privileged state of Muslim women to Islamic tradition.
As a result of cultural globalization, the movement of youths from the rural to urban setting has caused a significant depopulation of youths going to prayer houses in the rural setting. The arrival of Christianity has also depopulated the traditional religious adherents in many parts of Nigeria.
Proselytization: Information and communication technology is gradually spreading its influence on religious evangelism. This is in the areas and methods religious society globally use it for teaching, proselytizing and in belief systems. It is now possible for any religion to spread its faith beyond national borders, allowing even small religious movements to engage in overseas Proselytization activities.
The Family: In Nigeria due to the impact of globalization on cultural norms, socialization processes and values are affected. For instance some parents are no longer frowning at what the youths put on. The traditional pattern of subordinating when greeting an elder has changed to “hi”.
Our Languages: Today, the use foreign language, English, has always been an important aspect of official language in Nigeria. Though there is high rate of illiteracy in the rural population, the use of our local languages has its limitations. Many elite families would like their children to learn English language better than their local language.
Today, Nigerians use and read books written in foreign language faster and more fluently than those written in local languages. In Nigeria, cultural globalization has impacted on the number of Movies produced by Nigeria Nollywood. Movies produced in English are much more than those performed and produced in Igbo and other Nigerian languages. Globalization, Information Technologies and Libraries: Information and communication technology accelerates globalization of cultural values. As Omekwu (2006) reiterated, the internet is a key development in the growth of globalization because globalization has changed the nature of national government imposing national and international cultures on local culture. With information technologies, foreign cultures can be preserved in libraries and accessed simultaneously by library users and other Nigerians irrespective of their ethno-cultural learning.
Globalization and the internet also allow cultural heritage of different tribes in Nigeria to be uploaded, downloaded, and accessed by other people in another side of the world thereby projecting the cultural identity of Nigeria Omekwu (2003) captures this impact very well when he said, “the internet certainly offers the greatest opportunities for cultural exchange, causing more books, journal reference and paper based information media and cultural artefacts to migrate to electronic format. He cites Basser (1995) to have stressed on the negative impact of cultural globalization and the electronic media. According to him, as more and more people are relying on online access to culture, it is likely to have great effects on how people view culture and on the internal working of our cultural repositories, such as museum and libraries.
“As it become more and more convenient to view cultural objects on home computers” Basser continues, “people are likely to visit museums (and libraries) less frequently. More and more people access…museum objects online without entering the museum and libraries will rapidly become redundant and erode.”
This section, sought to address the challenges that face libraries and library professionals in globalization of Nigeria cultural heritage.
Repositioning Library Professionals in the new age: Today, professional librarians in Nigeria and other parts of Africa are facing the challenges of becoming irrelevant in the digital environment. This is because the analogue or traditional ways of handling and managing information are fundamentally changing. If professional librarians are not re-awakened to reposition their stand in the profession, they might be by-passed. Librarians in Nigeria must improve on their ICT and internet literacy in this changing environment in order to fit in very well in this era of information technology and globalization.
Management of Cultural Institutions: Libraries, museums and cultural institutions or ministries need to manage their cultural heritage in such a way that they will become access point to users. To do this, these heritage resources need to be digitalized for better preservation. The purpose of preserving anything is to enable access to it in future. Without access, to cultural heritage it would be difficult for people to learn from the past successes and failures. Therefore, the challenges of digitization, preservation and accessibility of cultural values remain a big task for library professionals.
Competition: Increasing globalization creates winner-take-all market for cultural output. That is why Carden (2008) referred to it as a double-edged sword capable of helping national cultures to revitalize their culture to face other cultures. The challenge for librarians is that those with technology advances, the authors and creators of technologies are better positioned to use these tools to improve on their cultural heritage. This is capable of masking African cultures at the global level.
Professional librarians in Nigeria have the task of repackaging their cultural heritage in order to meet international standard. This is so because survival in the new global business market calls for improved productivity and increased competition.
Expansion into the Hinterland: There is the need to provide enabling facilities for the rural community. Cultural heritage information are accessible to only those who have the internet or satellite TV, leaving out a substantial segment of the world population. However the village or local areas in the country are places where some of the immovable heritage is found. For the rural community to benefit from the services provided by Information technologies, the government should extend these facilities to that area in order to bridge the ICT divide.
Today’s societies are multi-culture in themselves, which encompasses a multitude of varying ways of life and lifestyle. Most people are shaped by more than a single culture, which is brought about by globalization. And globalization which is a concept of uniformity assumes that cultures are becoming the same as the world. In Nigeria, the instability of personality, family, community and other activities are largely due to the rapid erosion of our absolute traditional values and not due to the advancement of information technology. Instead, technology has come to accelerate our cultural heritage. Therefore, rejecting advanced information technology or globalization is not a solution for overcoming its disintegrating effects; rather, it may be viewed as a form of escape.
The only remedy in ensuring cultural stability is for the agents of change (government) to repackage and re-inculcate absolute values through the use of libraries, mass media, and advanced information technologies to counter negative changes that are emerging today.
Therefore very few human communities will neither want to reject technological changes or globalization, nor will they want to return to the traditional pattern of community organisation especially now that they have evolved new pattern to suit their immediate needs.
In view of the contending issues, impacts and challenges, the following recommendations are made for effective cultural preservation in a global world environment.
- There is the need for the legal protection of the intangible cultural heritage.
- There is need for the government to revive traditional and popular forms of a people’s expression.
- Government should incorporate programmes relating to traditional cultures, heritage and folklore in education curricular at all levels.
- Government should develop legislative protection for traditional culture, heritage museum, archives, and libraries.
- Government should provide training in the use of ICT for documentation, digitization and preservation of cultural heritage.
- There is the need to establish “heritage club” where issues of cultural heritage would be discussed as a means of transmission of oral and intangible heritage.
- An international World Day for showcasing and safe-guarding traditional cultural heritage should be established.
- There is the need to hold seminars, workshops or technical assistance for training of managers and teachers in the field of traditional culture and heritage.
- Conservation, preservation and dissemination of expressions of the intangible cultural heritage should continue to be an important component of the library profession.
- Public policies to protect the young from the abuse and misuse of modern information technologies – indecent dressing, violence, sex and phonographic materials that find their way to some homes – should be made.
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